Dendrobium - Swartz


An Indo-Malesio-Australasian genus of about 900 species of epiphytic or lithophytic orchids, Dendrobium is represented in India by 102 species and two subspecies . Seventeen species and two subspecies are found in kerala.

1. Dendrobium anamalayanum Chandr., Chnadrasekaran & Nair , J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 78(3): 575. 1981; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983: 1588.

This species seems quite close to D. microbulbon A. Rich., if not conspecific with it .

Occurrence : Idukki District.

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Tamil Nadu (type) and Kerala) .

2. Dendrobium aqueum Lindl., Bot. Reg. 29.t. 54. Misc. 6. 1843; J.D. Hook . 1890 : 739 ;Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1417 ;Santapu & Kapadia 1966: 99; Abraham & Vatsala 1981: 349 ; Seidenfaden in Mattew 1983: 1589.

D. album wight , Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5(1) :6. t. 1645. 1851.

Flowers are large and white and lip yellow and puberulous .

Occurrence : Palghat District

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Maharashtra , Karnataka , Kerala and Tamil Nadu).

3. Dendrobium barbatulum Lindl. , Gen .Sp. Orch. 84 . 1830 ; J.D. Hook . 1890 : 719 ;Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1416 ; Santapau & Kapadia 1966: 93 ; joseph 1982 : 106 & 1987 : 143.

This is large flowered species than Dendrobium ovatum and related ot it but distinct . Abraham & Vatsala's (1981: 355) report of large flowered variety under Dendrobium ovatum from 'Thaliparamba, South Wynad, etc.' actually represents Dendrobium barbatulum Lindl.

Occurrence : Wayanad and Kannur Districts.

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Gujarat , Maharashtra, Karnataka , Goa , Kerala , Tamil Nadu).

4. Dendrobium crepidatum Lindl .& Paxt,.Paxton Fl. Gard . 1: 63 .Fig. 45. 1850 : J.D. Hook . 1890 : 740 ; Santapau & Kapadia 1966: 101 ; Abraham & Varsala 1981 : 349 ; Seidenfaden 1985 : 80. Dendrobium lawianum Lindl., J. Linn. Soc. 3: 10. 1859:

Santapau & Kapadia 1966: 102 ; Mektesh Kumar & Sasidharan 1986: 187.

Dendrobium actinomorphum Blatt& Hallberg, J. Ind. Bot. Soc. 2: 50 . 1921.

This species was described by Lindley & Paxton based on a collection from Meghalaya . This species occurs in two forms-one with normal flowers and the other with more or less actinomorphic and self pollinating flowers .The Latter is called Dendrobium lawianum by Lindley (syn. Dendrobium actinomorphun Blatt & Hallberg) but there is hardly any difference between the two .

Occurrence : Wayanad and Kannur Districts .

Distribution : From India to Nepal , Bhutan , Burma , Thailand to Vietnam , Laos and China.

5. Dendrobium diodon Rchb.f. in Linnaea 41: 89. 1877. subsp. Kodayarensis Gopalan & Henry , J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. . 12(2) : 487 . 1988.

This new subspecies was described from Kodayar inTamil Nadu . Our records is from adjoinging Neyyar wildlife Sanctuary (CSK 1621 TBGT!) . This is a new state record.Flowers are greenish white , ovary dark green polished. Dorsal sepal about 6 mm long; petals greenish white ; lip 3-lobed , sidelobes with a few crimson red spots; midlobe margined by fleshy outgrowths. Disc with thick and fleshy projecting tooth ending in midlobe base.

Occurrence : Trivandrum District.

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Kerala , Tamil Nadu(type)).

6. Dendrobium haemoglossum Thw., Enum . Pl. Zeyl. 429. 1864; J.D. Hook . 1890 : 727;Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1416 ; Abraham & Vatsala 1981: 365. Dendrobium bambusaefolium auct . non . Par. & Rchb.f.: Jayaweera in Dassanayake & Fosberg 1981: 88.

Described by Thwaites based on a collection from Sri Lanka.

Occurrence : Idukku , Palghat ,Wayanad and Kannur Districts.

Distribution : South India (Karnataka , Kerala and Tamil Nadu) and Sri. Lanka.

7. Dendrobium herbaceum Lindl. , Bot. Misc. 69 . 1840 : J.D. Hook . 1890 : 719 ;Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1416; Santapau & Kapadia 1966; 82 .t. 17; Abraham & Vatsala 19181: 368 : Joseph 1982 : 104 ; Seidenfaden in matthew 1983: 1590 ;Joseph 1987 : 143.

Dendrobium ramosissimum Wight ,Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5 (1): 6 . t. 1648 . 1851.

Lindley described this species after a collection by Loddiges from ' East India ' . Wight's Dendrobium ramosissimum was based on Jerdon's collection from Coorg jungles. This is a distinct species related to Dendrobium parcum Rchb.f. and like it much branched and small flowered , but lip unlobed with a thick median keel nearly glabrous, margin toothed , sparsely gland-dotted , 5-veined and obtuse.

Occurrence: Trivandrum, Idukki, Palghat, Wayanad and Kannur Districts.

Distribution : National Endemic (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh , Maharashtra , Karnataka , Kerala and Tamil Nadu.).

8. Dendrobium heterocarpum Wall.ex. Lindl., gen. Sp. Orch. 78. 1830;J.D.Hook. 1890:737; Fischer in Gamble 1928: 1416; Abraham and Vatsala 1981: 361; Jayaweera in Dassanayake and Fosberg 1981:84; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983:1589.

Dendrobium aureum, Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. 77.1830; Wight 1851:6.t.1646.

Lindley described Dendrobium heterocarpum based on a Wallich specimen from Nepal. D.aureum was based on Macrae's collection from 'Nuera Ellia' in Sri Lanka. Specimens from Northeastern India and Southern India do differ in details e.g., petals of South Indian specimens are much broader and more obtuse. In Northeastern Indian specimens, on the contrary, petals are not different from the sepals in size.

Occurrence: Trivandrum, Idukki, Palghat, Wayanad and Kannur districts.

Distribution: Indo-Malesia.

9. Dendrobium heyneanum. Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. 78.1830; J.D.Hook. 1890:718; Fischer in Gamble 1928:1415; Abraham and Vatsala 1981:358; Joseph 1982:104 and 1987:139.

Described by Lindley based on Heyne's collection without precise locality. This species is often confused with D.wightii, but the lip characters (obovate pinkish white 3-lobbed, erect acute sidelobes with green stripes and orbicular - oblong midlobe subrotund, fleshy, incise crenate on margin and mucronate ate apex; disc with longitudinal calli) and laterally compressed stems of D.heyneanum are very characteristic.

Occurrence: Trivandrum, Idukki, Palghat, Wayanad and Kannur Districts.

Distribution: Regional Endemic (Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu).

10. Dendrobium jerdonianum Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5(1):6 in part, non t. 1644.1851; J.D. Hook. 1888:734, excl. Wight Ic. %1890: t. 7741.

D. wilosulum Lindl., Paxton Fl. Gard. 2:82. ic. xylog.n. 175. 1852 non Wallich 1830.

Wight described this species based on Jerdon's collection from Coorg which he mixed with specimens of D.nutantiflorum from lyamally hills in tamil Nadu. Wight's t. 1644 actually represents the latter species. Reichenbach f. combined the two species while J.D.Hooker reinstated D.jerdonianum. In fact, D. jerdonianum was introduced to England prior to 1852 when it was described by Lindley as D. villosulum after a plant sent from Tellicherry, very near Jerdon's original locality. Often seen epiphytic on Wendlandia thyrsoidea ( Roem. & Schult.) Sterd.

Occurrence: Palghat and Wayanad Districts.

Distribution: Regional Endemic ( Kerala, Karnataka)

11. Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. 78. 1830: J.D. Hook. 1890: 735; Santapau & Kapadia 1966:96; Abraham & Vatsala 1981:355; Jayaweera in Dassanayake & Fosberg 1981:90; Joseph 1982:106 & 1987:143.

Lindley described this species based on Macrae's collection from Sri Lanka. This is the most common species of Dendrobium in the lower elevations in Kerala and growing on many tree species like Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., Careya arborea Roxb., Glochidion sp. Tectona grandis L.f., Terminalia sp. etc.

Occurrence: Trivandrum, Quilon, Kottayam, Idukki, Thrissur, Palghat, Calicut, Wayanad and Kannur districts.

Distribution: West and South India ( Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu) and Sri Lanka.

12. Dendrobium microbulbon A. Rich in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. 2., 15:19.t.8.1841: J.D. Hook. 1890: 716; Fischer in Gamble 1928: 1415; Santapau & Kapadia 1966:87 t. 19; Abraham & Vatsala 1981:358; Joseph 1982:102; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983:1588; Joseph 1987:138.

D.humile Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5(1): 5.t. 1653.1851.

Richard described this species based on Perrottet's collection from Ootacamund in Nilgiris.

Occurrence: Trivandrum District.

Distribution: Regional Endemic ( Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu).

13. Dendrobium nanum. J.D. Hook., Ic. Pl. t. 1853. 1889 & 1890:717; Fischer in Gamble 1928:1415; Joseph 1982:102; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983:1587; Joseph 1987:135.

D.mabelae Gammie, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Saldanha in Saldanha & Nicholson 1976:821.

Described by Hooker based on Law's collection from Bababoodan hills in Karnataka.

Occurrence: Pathanamthitta, Palgahat and Wayanad districts.

Distribution: Regional Endemic ( Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu).

14. Dendrobium nutantiflorum Hawkes & Helter, Lloydia 20(2): 122. 1957; Joseph 1987:135.

D.nutans Lindl., Gen. Sp.Orch. 90. 1830, non Presl 1827; J.D.Hook. 1888: 734; 1895:734. t.18; Fischer in Gamble 1928:1416; Abraham & Vatsala 1981: 363; Jayaweera in Dassanayake & Fosberg 1981:82; Joseph 1982:101.

D. nutans Lindl. var. rubrolabris Blatt., Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 32:518.1928.

Described by Lindley based on Macrae's collection from Sri Lanka. This being a later homonym of that of Presl ( 1827) proposed a new name - D.nutantiflorum. Blatter (1928) described a new variety rubrolabris under D.nutans based on a collection from High Wavy Mountains. He distinguished his variety from the species by the white flowers, pink lip with purple spots and a very strongly crisped midlobe. this is exactly the character of the species.

Occurrence: Trivandrum, Idukki and Palghat districts.

Distribution: Southern India (Kerala, Tamil Nadu) and Sri Lanka.

15. Dendrobium ovatum (L.) Kraenzl. in Engler, Pflanzenr.45: 71.1910; Fischer in Gamble 1928:1416; Santapau & Kapadia 1966:91; Abraham & Vatsala 1981:353.

Epidendrum ovatum L., Sp. Pl. 2:952. 1753.

Dendrobium chlorops Lindl., Bot. Reg. Misc. 44. 1844; J.D. Hook. 1890: 719.

D.barbatulum Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 3 (2): 10. t. 910.1844-45, non Lindl. 1830.

The first description along with an illustration of this species was published by Rheede (1693) in his Hortus Malabaricus (vol.12: t.7) as Anantali Maravara. Linnaeus based this for his Epidendrum ovatum.

Occurrence: Trivandrum, Quilon, Pathanamthitta, Idukki, Thrissur, Palghat, Wayanad, Kannur and Kasargod Districts.

Distribution: Regional Endemic ( Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu).

16. Dendrobium panduratum Lindl., J. Linn. Soc. 3: 19.1859; J.D.Hook. 1888:717; Jayaweera in Dassanayake & Fosberg 1981:76; Manilal & Sathish Kumar 1985:299.

Originally described from Central Sri Lanka based on Hooker and Thwaites's collection. We matched our specimens with Thwaites C. P.2353 at CAL and MH. however, Paul Ormeord of Australia says (in litt.) that our identification is wrong.

Occurrence: Palghat District.

Distribution: South India (Kerala) and Sri Lanka.

17. Dendrobium panduratum Lindl. subsp. villosum Gopalan & Henry. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 87(1):128.1990.

This subspecies was originally described from Tamil Nadu. We got our specimens from Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary adjoining the type locality (CSK 16604, PCSK 27388, TBGT!) This is a new state record.

Occurrence: Trivandrum District.

Distribution: Regional Endemic ( Tamil Nadu (type) and Kerala ).

18. Dendrobium pegaunum Lindl., J. Linn. Soc. 3:19.1859; Santapau & Kapadia 1966:84; Seidenfaden 1985:132.

D.pygmaeum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. 85. 1830 & Bot. Mag. 30:misc. 62. 1844, non J.E. sm. J.D.Hook. 1890:717.

Described by Lindley based on MacLelland's colection from Pegu in Burma. A Very distinct species remarkable for its long falcate spathulate petals and lip with a distinctly emarginate callus.

Occurrence: Wayanad District.

Distribution: India, Nepal, Burma and Thailand.

19. Dendrobium wightii Hawkes & Heller, Orquidea 24:16.1962; Balakrishnan 1970:66; Rathakrishnan 1972:30; Abraham & Vatsala 1981; 351; Joseph 1982:103; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983:1590; Joseph 1987:138.

D. graminifolium Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5(1) 6.t.1649. 1851, non Willd. 1805; J.D. Hook. 1890:718: Fischer in Gamble 1928:1415.

Originally described by Wight based on a collection from Courtallum in Tamil Nadu. Wight's epithet was, however, a alter homonym of that of Wild. 1805 and hence Hawkes & Heller (1962) proposed the name D.wightii commemorating Wight. Apparently unaware of this nomen novum, Balakrishnan (1970) and Rathakrishnan ( 1972) independently proposed the same name.

This is a distinct species related to D. heyneanum Lindl. and D. panduratum Lindl. but different in having a uniformly cylindric stem, often with offsets and a very characteristic lip.

Occurrence: Trivandrum, Quilon and kannur districts.

Distribution: Regional Endemic - Peninsular India (Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh).

20. Dendrobium sp.

Theuerkauf collected this species from wayanad. If doesn't seem related to any known species from south india. A detailed description is under preparation.

Occurrence: Wayanad District.

Distribution: Local Endemic (Kerala).

 

 
 

 

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