Eulophia - Robert Brown ex Lindley
An Old World gensu of about 200 species of ground orchids(with a few saprophytic and rarely epiphytic members), Eulophia is represented in India by 26 species . Seven species are found in kerala . Eulophia emilianae Saldanha, originally described from Karnataka and later recorded from kerala is proved to be Eulophia zollingeri (Rchb.f. ) J. J. Sm., a widespred species across Indo-Malesia . Eulophia hirsuta Joseph & Vajravelu (1975 (1978)), described from Karasuryamalai was transferred to Pachystoma by us earlier (Sathish Kumar 7 Manilal, 1987).
1. Eulophia cullenii (Wight) Bl. , Orch. Arch. Ind. 182. 1858; Fischer in Gamble1928: 1435; Rathakrishnan 1971: 3; Abraham & Vatsala 1981: 298 ; Mohanan et al. 1982 : 235.
Cyrtopera cullenii Wight , Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5 (1) : 21. t. 1754. 1851 .
Originally described by Wight based on General Cullen's collection from Travancore. It was transferred to Eulophia by Blume . Fischer's combination is thus superfluous . This species is closely related to Eulophia flava (Lindl.) J.D. Hook . but different in having a differently shaped lip , globose pollinia and a differently shaped lip , globose pollinia and a differently shaped viscidium .
Occurrence : Trivandrum and Quilon Districts.
Distribution : Regional Endemic (Kerala , Tamil Nadu).
2. Eulophia epidendraea (koen.) Scheltr., Die Orchideen 146. 1915(' epidendroides'); Jauaweera in Dasnayake & Fosberg 1981: 168; Abraham & Vatsala 1981: 294 ; Joseph 1982 : 25 : Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983 : 1695; Joseph 1987: 28.
Serapias epidendraea Koen . in Retz., Obs. Bot. 6: 65. 1791.
Limodorum virens Roxb, Pl. Corom .T. 38. 1795.
Eulophia virens (Roxb.) R Br. ex Lindl., Bot. Reg. 7 : sub t. 573 . 1821; Wight 1844-45: t. 913 ; J.D. Hook . 1890 : 1.
Originally described by Koenig based on collections from Tranquebar (Tarangambadi) in Tamil Nadu. This was transferree to Eulophia by Schlechter.
This is nearly allied to Eulophia gramine Lindl. but Schlechter . This is nearly allied to Eulophia graminea Lindl. but larger in all respects. Rheede's plate (Hort.Malab. 12: t. 26. 1703) represents this species .
Occurrence :Trivandrum , Quilon , Wayanad Districts.
Distribution : Peninsular India (Maharashtra , Kerala , Tamil Nadu) and Sri Lanka .
3. Eulophia graminea Lindl. , Gen . Sp. Orch. 182 . 1833 ; J.D. Hook . 1890 : 2 ;Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1435: Jayaweera in Dassanayake & Fosberg 1981: 171 ; Abraham & Vatsala 1981: 296; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983 : 1603; Seidenfaden 1983: 29.
Described by Lindley based on a Wallich collection from Singapore . Closely related to the former species but smaller in all its parts .
Occurrence : Malappuram and Palghat Districts.
Distribution: Throughout Indo-Malesia .
4. Eulophia pratensis Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 3 : 25 . 1858; J.D.Hook . 1858: 4 ; Fischer in Gamble 1928: 14345; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1999: 1252. Eulophia ramentacea auct. non Lindl. : wight 1851: 8 .t. 1666; Santapau & Kapadia 1966 : 113.
Wight described Eulophia ramentacea based on a collection from Pulneys. This was later homonym of that of Lindl. (1833) and hence illegitimate . Lindly proposed his Eulophia pratensis based on Stock's collection from Deccan .
Occurrence : Idukki District.
Distribution : Regional Endemic (Tamil Nadu (type) and kerala).
5. Eulophia pulchra (Thouars ) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. 182. 1833; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983" 1607; Joseph 1987: 24.
Limodorum pulchrum Thouars , Orch. Iles . Austr. Afr. Pls. 43, 47. 1822.
Eulophia macrostachya Lindl. , Gen. sp.Orch. 183. 1833; Wight 1851: 8 .t. 1667-68 ; J.D. Hook. 1890 : 4; Fischer in Gamble 1928: 1435; Abraham & Vatsala 1981: 298 ; Joseph 1982: 23.
Originally described by Thouars based on a collection from Reunion in Mascarene Islands.
Occurrence : Quilon and Idukki Districts.
Distribution : Widespread from Madagascar to the Pacific .
6. Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst.) Suresh in Nicolson et al., Interpret . Hort. Malab. 300. 1988; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1999: 1253.
Wolffia spectabilis Dennst., Schlussel Hort. Malab. 11, 25, 38. 1818.
Eulophia nuda Lindl. , Gen. Sp. Orch. 180. 1833 ; J. D. Hook . 1890: 5 ; Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1435; Santapau & Kapadia 1966 : 115 ; Jayaweera in Dassanayake & Fosberg 1981 : 175 ; Abraham & Vatsala 1981 : 300 ; Joseph 1982 : 23 : Seidenfaden 1983 : 40 ;Joseph 1987: 28.
Cyrtopera fusca Wight , Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5 (1): 11.t. 1690. 1851.
A highly variable species with a series of colour forms from red , purple , yellow to green and white .
Occrrence : Trivandrum ,Thrissur , Palghat, Calicut,Wayanad and Kannur Districts.
Distribution : Throughout Indo-Malesia.
7. Eulophia zollingeri (Rchb.f. ) J.J. Sm., Orch. Java 228. 1905 .
Cyrtopera zollingeri Rchb.f. in Bonplandia 5: 38. 1857.
C. sanguinea Lindl., J. Linn. Soc. , Bot. 3: 32 . 1858 . Eulophia sanguinea (Lindl.) J.D.Hook ., Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 8. 1890.
Eulophia emilianae Saldanha in Ind. For. 100: 566.t. 1. 1974; Saldanha in Saldanha & Nicolson 1976: 830 . syn . nov.
Type : Karnataka , Hassan District , Shiradi Ghat Saldanha 16923 St,.Joseph's College ,Bangalore .
Saldanha's Eulophia emilianae is in no way different from the prior Eulophia zollingeri , already recorded from Northern India and Sri Lanka . Study of the type specimen and new collections from Palghat District prove that it is one and the same . Hence , it is synonymized under Eulophia zollingeri (Rchb.f.) J.J. Sm.(See fig. 12 & Pl. VIII b).
Occurrence : Trivandrum , Palghat Districts.
Distribution : Widespread across Indo-Malesia to Australia .
Orchid Kerala India - Conceived, Crafted and Cared for by Jithin & Sinu.