Habenaria - Willdenow


A large pantropical genus of about 600-800 species of ground orchids, Habenaria is represented in India by 72 species and one variety . Twenty five species are known from kerala .

1. Habenaria acuminaria (Thw.) Trimen, Cat. Ceylon Pl. 91. 1885; J.D. Hook. 1890 : 133; Trimen 1898 : 227 ; Jayaweera in Dassanayake & Fosberg 1981: 347.

Ate acuminata Thw., Enum ., Pl. Zeyl.309. 1861.

This species has bipartite petals .

Occurrence : Idukki District.

Distribution : South India (kerala , Tamil Nadu) and Sri Lanka.

2. Habenaria barnesii Summerh .ex Fischer in Gamble , Fl. Pres. Madras 1887. 1936; Abraham & Vatsala 1981 : 236; Joseph 1982: 63 & 1987: 85.

This was described based on collections made by Barnes from Nilgiris and Nemakad Gap in Kerala . Fischer points out that this species is most related to Habenaria heyneana Lindl. but different in having an erect dorsal sepal and petals together forming a hood with lateral sepals and lip spreading.

Occurrence : Iduki and Thrissur Districts.

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Kerala & Tamil Nadu) .

3. Habenaria cephalotes Lindl,. Gen . Sp . Orch. 322. 1835; Wight 1851 : 14 t. 1711; J.D. Hook . 1890: 139 ; Fischer in Gamble 1928: 1469 ; Abraham & Vatsala 1981: 219 ; Joseph 1982 : 63 & 1987: 85.

Habenaria trichosantha sensu A. Rich. , Ann. Sci. Nat. (2.S.) 15: 73. 1841, non Lindl. 1835.

Described by Lindley based on a collection from Nilgiris made by Wight.

Occurrence : Idukki , Palghat Districts.

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Kerala , Tamil Nadu).

4. Habenaria crassifolia A. Rich. , Ann. Sci. Nat. (ser.2) 15: 72 .t. 3C. 1841 ; J.D. Hook . 1890: 151 (excl. syn. Habenaria pachyphylla Rchb.f. )Fischer in Gamble 1928: 1471; Santapau & Kapadia 1966: 22; Abraham & Vatsala 1981: 231; Joseph 1982: 547 1987: 71 . Platanthera pachyphylla Lindl. , Gen .Sp. Orch. 293. 1835; Wight 1851 : t. 1694.

Habenaria pachyphylla (Lindl) Kraenzl., Bot. jarhb. 16 : 153. 1893 non Rchb . f. 1886.

Richard described this species based on collections from Ootacamund and Avalanchy in Nilgiris , Tamil Nadu . He compared this species with Habenaria platyphylla (Willd.) Spreng. and its conspecific Orchis plantaginea but the spur of Habenaria crassifolia is shorter than in Habenaria platyphylla and floral bracts are as long as ovary.

Occurrence : Idukki District.

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Maharashtra, Kerala , Tamil Nadu, Orissa).

5. Habenaria crinifera Lindl. , Gen. Sp. Orch. 323. 1835; Wight 1844-45 : 11.t. 926; J.D. Hook . 1890: 142;Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1471 ; Santapau & Kapadia 1966 : 26 ; Saldanha in Saldanha 7 Nicolson 1976 : 832 ; Abraham & Vatsala 1981 : 241.

The lip of this species is curiously cut.

Occurrence : Trivandrum , Idukki , Thrissur,Palghat and Wayanad District.

Distribution : Peninsular India (Maharashtra, Karnataka , Kerala , Tamil Nadu) and Sri Lanka .

6. Habenaria digitata Lindl. , Gen. Sp. Orch. 307. 1835; J.D Hook . 1890: 134, in part; Fischer in Gamnle 1928 : 1469 ; Santapau & Kapadia 1966: 10 ; Joseph 1982 : 58 ; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983 : 1562 ; Joseph 1987: 75.

Habenaria trinervia Wight , Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5(1): 12 .t. 1701. 1851.

This species was originally described by Lindley based on De Silva's collection from Pundua in Assam . Habenaria digitata is a highly variable species .Fischer relegated the status of Habenaria foliosa A . Rich. , Habenaria travancorica J.D. Hook . and Habenaria gibsonii J.D. Hook . to varieties under Habenaria digitata . Habenaria trinervia was described based on Law's collection from Belgaum in Karnataka .

Occurrence : Idukki , Thrissur , Palghat and Wayanad Districts.

Distribution : India to Indo-China .

7. Habenaria diphylla Dalz., Hook.j. Bot. 2: 262. 1850; J.D. Hook 1890: 151 (excl. Liparis diphylles Nimmo) ; Fischer in Gamble 1928: 1471 ; Santapau & Kapadia 1966: 21.

Habenaria jerdoniana Wight ,Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5 (1) : 14 .t. 1751. 1851.

Described based on collections from Concan . Wight's Habenaria Jerdoniana was after a collection by Jerdon from Malabar . ]

Occurrence : Malappuram District.

Distribution : India to Bangladesh and the Philippines .

8. Habenaria elliptica Wight , Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5 (1): 13 .t. 1706. 1851 : J.D. Hook . 1890: 147; Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1471: Abraham & Vatsala 1981 : 233 ; Joseph 1982 : 65 & 1987: 87.

Described by Wight based on collection from Pulney Hills, Tamil Nadu, this species is characterized by the sepals that are scurfy pubescent on the adaxial surfaces.

Occurrence : Idukki and Palghat Districts.

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Tamil Nadu, Kerala ).

9. Habenaria elwesii J.D. Hook . in Bot. Mag. T. 7478 . 1896 ;Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1468 ; Joseph 1982 : 55 & 1987 : 73 .

This species was described based on Proudlock's collection from Nilgiris .

Occurrence : Palghat District .

Distribution : Regional Endemic (karnataka , Kerala and Tamil Nadu) .

10. Habenaria flabelliformis Summerh. ed Fischer in Gamble , Fl. Pres.Madras 1887. 1936 & Hook . Ic. T. 3308. 1936.

Described based on Barness' collection from slopes of 'Anaimudi'.

Occurrence : Idukki District Only.

Distribution : Local Endemic (Kerala).

11. Habenaria furcifera Lindl. , Gen. Sp. Orch. 319. 1835; J.D . Hook . 1890: 140 ; Santapau & Kapadia 1966 : 39 ; Rathakrishnan 1971: 2; Seidenfaden 1977: 118 ; Joseph 1982 : 59 & 1987: 77.

Lindley described this species based on Royale's collection from 'Mussooree'. The large leaves, very lax inflorescence and the flowers with a slender spur longer than the ovary are characteristic .

Occurrence : Palghat District.

Distribution : Widespread from India to Thailand .

12. Habenaria heyneana Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. 320. 1835;Wight 1844-45: t. 923 & 1851: t. 1703-1704; J.D. Hook . 1890: 148; Fischer in Gamble 1928: 1471; Santapau & Kapadia 1966 : 32 ; Abraham & Vatsala 1981: 231;Joseph 1982: 62 ; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983 : 1567 ; Joseph 1987: 83.

Habenaria subpubens A. Rich ., Ann. Sci. Nat. (ser.2)15: 75, t. 4C. 1841; J.D. Hook . 1890: 148 .

Habenaria glabra A. Rich., loc. cit. 75 ,t. 54. 1841.

Habenaria candida Dalz. in Hook .J. Bot. 2: 262. 1850.

Habenaria cerea Blatt . & Mc Cann , J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 36: 21.t. 6. 1932.

Habenaria cerea Blat . & McCann var. polyantha Blatt. & Mc Cann , J. Bombay Nat. Hist .Soc. 36: 22 . 1932.

This is a highly variable species .

Occurrence:Trivandrum , Quilon , Idukki , Palghat Districts .

Distribution :Regional Endemic (Maharashtra, karnataka ,Kerala and Tamil Nadu).

13 . Habenaria grandifloriformis Blatt . & Mc Cann , J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 36 : 17 . 1932 ; emend. Santapau & Kapadia , ibid. 56 : 195 . 1959 ; 1966 : 17 ; Sasikumar 1975 : 277; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983: 1561.

Habenaria grandiflora Lindl.,Wall. Cat. N. 7032 ex J.D. Hook ., Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 136 . 1890 ;Fischer in Gamble 1928: 1469 , non Torrey ex Beck .1833.

Habenaria rotundifolia Lindl. , Gen . Sp. Orch.306 . 1835, non Richardson 1823.

As Lindley's two names were later homonyms Blatter & Mc Cann proposed a new name after a collection from the grassland in the tableland of Panchgani in Maharashtra.

Occurrence : Wayanad District.

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Gujarat, Maharashtra , Karnataka , Kerala , Tamil Nadu).

14. Habenaria longicorniculata Grah ., Cat. Bombay Pl. 202 . 1839; Santapau & Kapadia 1966: 29; Abraham & Vatsala 1981 : 238 ; Joseph 1982: 66; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983 : 1564; Joseph 1987: 89.

Habenaria longicalcarata A . Rich ., Ann.Sci. Nat. Sci. (Ser.2) 15: 71 .t. 38. 1841; Wight 1844-45: 11.t. 925;J.D. Hook. 1890: 141; Fischer in Gamble 1928: 1470 . Habenaria longicalcarata A .Rich . var. viridis Blatt. & Mc Cann. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 36: 20 . 1932.

Graham collected this species from 'the open ground about Sir Herbert Compton's Bunglow at Kandalla '. Richard proposed Habenaria longicalcarata based on Perrotter's collection from Nilgiris .

Occurrence : Trivandrum ,Idukki ,Pathanamthitta , Palghat and Wayanad Districts.

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Gujarat,Maharashtra, Karnataka , Kerala , Tamil Nadu & Rajasthan ).

15. Habenaria longicornu Lindl. Gen .Sp. Orch . 322. 1835; J.D. Hook . 1890: 139; Fischer in Gamble 1928: 1470 ; Joseph 1982: 68 ; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983 : 1564: Joseph 1987 : 93 .

Habenaria montana A. Rich., Ann. Sci. nat.Bot. (Ser.2) 15: 73 .t. 4A. 1841; Wight 1844-45 : 11 .t. 927, in part.

Described by Lindley based on Heyne's collection , this species is much related to Habenaria longicorniculata but different in having a small triangular ligule at the mouth of the spur.

Occurrence : Pathanamthitta, Idukki, Thrissur and Palghat districts.

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Karnataka , Kerala and Tamil Nadu).

16. Habenaria macrostachya Lindl., Gen ,sp.Orch. 307 . 1835; J.D. Hook . 1890 : 134.

This species was described by Lindley based on Macrae's collection from Sri Lanks . Beddome collected this species from 'Travancore the Anamally Hills'. ;

Occurrence : Idukki District.

Distribution : Southern India (Kerala , Tamil Nadu ) and Sri Lanka .

17. Habenaria multicaudata Sedgw., Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. 6 : 352. 1919; Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 14; Santapau & Kapadia 1966 : 14 ; Abraham & Vatsala 1981 : 216 ; Joseph 1982 : 56; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983 : 1563; Joseph 1987: 75.

Described by L. J. Sedgwick based on 'a collection by T.R.D. Bell, Chief Conservator of Forests , Bombay presidencey in September 1917 from Gudihalli , a hill close to the sea coast near kaswar in North Kanara '.

18. Habenaria ovalifolia Wight ,Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5(1) : 3 .t. 1708. 1851 ; J.D. Hook . 1890 : 149 ;Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1471; Santapau &Kapadia 1966: 37 ; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983 : 1566& 1999: 1223.

Habenaria modesta Dalz . In Kew J.Bot. 2: 262 . 1850 ; J.D. Hook . 1890: 166.

Habenaria hallbergii Blatt & Mc Cann, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 36 : 24. 1932.

This was described by Wight based on a collection from Anamalai . This species is characterized by the linear-lanceolate sidelobes that are vertical on the axis and the oblong diamond-shaped midlobe rising vertical , close to column.

Occurrence : Travancore, Thrissur and Palghat Districts.

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Maharashtra , Karnataka , Kerala , Tamil Nadu ).

19 . Habenaria peloroides Par. & Rchb.f. , Trans . Linn. Soc. 30 : 135 & 139 .T. 27. Fig. A. 1-3 . 1874; J. D. hook. 1890: 166.

This was originally described from Burma and was wrongly synonimized under Habenaria dentata by Seidenfaden .We feel it sufficiently distinct from the latter species. Vatsala (1975) reported this as an abnormal orchid from Kerala . We collected this species from two matching exactly with the drawing of the Burmese type .

Occurrence : Idukki and Palghat Districts.
Distribution : India & Burma (Type ).

20. Habenaria periyarensis Sasidharan , Rajesh & Jomy , Rheedea 8(2) : 167 . 1998. ]

This is a recently described species from Periyar in Kerala and is related to Habenaria diphylla Dalz .

Occurrence : Idukki District .

Distribution : Local Endemic (Kerala ) .

21. Habenaria perrrottetiana A . Rich . , Ann . Sci. Nat. (Ser.2) 15 : 74 .T. 48 . 1841 ;J.D. Hook . 1890 : 164 ; Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1471 ; Abraham & Vatsala 1981 : 236 ; Joseph 1982 : 614 & 1987: 80 ; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1999: 1223.

Richard described this species based on a collection from near Ootacamund . Rostellum in this speceis forms broad triangular acute plate extending across the column and reaching to the bases of the anther cells. Hooker (1890) noted the peculiarity of this while Seidenfaden (1999) suggested a new generic status .

Occurrence : Trivandrum and Idukki Districts .

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Kerala , Tamil Nadu).

22. Habenaria plantaginea Lindl. Gen .Sp. orch. 323. 1835; Wight 1851: t. 1710 ; J.D.Hook. 1890 : 141; Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1420 ; Santapau & Kapadia 1966: 28 ; Abraham & Vatsala 1981 : 238 ; Joseph 1982 : 69 ; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983 : 1565; Joseph 1987: 95.

Lindley described this species based on Wallich collection from Tinnevelly and Travancore . Abraham & Vatsala (1981) reported this species from Achancoil near Sabarimala .

Occurrence : Quilon , Pathanamthitta , Idukki and Palghat districts.

Distribution : India and Sri . Lanka .

22. Habenaria rariflora A. Rich ., Ann. Sci. Nat. (ser.2) 15: 70 .T. 20 . 1841; Wight 1844-45 : t. 924; J.D. Hook . 1890 : 136;Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1469 ;Santapau & Kapadia 1966: 15 ;Abraham & Vatsala 1981 : 216 ; Joseph 1982 : 56;Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983 : 1562; Joseph 1987: 73.

Described by Richard based on Perrottet's collection from 'Koonoor' in Nilgiris,this species is very unique , flowers are mostly 1 or 2 per inflorescence .

Occurrence : Idukki , wayanad Districts.

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Kerala , Tamil Nadu ).

23. Habenaria richardiana Wight , Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 5(1): 14 .t. 1713 . 1851 ; J.D. Hook. 1890: 139;Fischer in Gamble 1928: 1470 ; Joseph 1982: 66 & 1987 : 89.

Described by Wight based on collections from 'Nilgherries and Anamallais ' where it was growing on rocky ground among grass."

Occurrence : Idukki District.

Distribution : Regional Endemic (Kerala , Tamil Nadu).

24. Habenaria roxburghii Nicolson in Saldanha 7 Nicolson , Fl. Hassan Dist . 834 . 1976; Seidenfaden in Matthew 1983 : 1563.

Orchis plantaginea Roxb., Pl. Corom . 1: 32 . T. 37 . 1795 (non Habenaria plantaginea Lindl. 1835).

O. platyphyllos Willd., Sp. 4: 11. 1805 ,nom. superfl.

O. roxburghii Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 503. 1807 .

Habenaria platyphylla (Willd .) Spreng ., Syst. Veg. 3: 690. 1826, nom . superfl. ; Santapau & Kapadia 1966: 19 ; Abraham & Vatsala 1981: 229.

Ornerod informs us that Nicolson is the correct author and that R.Brown never made the combination .

Occurrence: Travancore , Malabar .

Distribution : Regional Endemic (karnataka , Kerala, Tamil Nadu , Andhra Pradesh , Madhya Pradesh).

25. Habenaria viridiflora (Rottler ex Sw.) R. Br. Prodr. Fl. N. Holl. 312 . 1812; J.D. Hook . 1890 : 150 ;Fischer in Gamble 1928 : 1471 ; Santapau & Kapadia 1966 : 35 ; seidenfaden 1977 : 118 .

Orchis viridiflora Rottler ex Sw. , Vet. Akad . Nya Handl. 21: 206 . 1800.

Habenaria graminea auct. non spreng : A . Richard 1841: 72.

Coeloglossum luteum Dalz., Hook. J. Bot. 2 : 263 1850.

Habenaria viridiflora var.dalzellii J.D. Hook ., Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 150 . 1890 .

Described based on Rottler's collection probably from Traquebar, Tamil Nadu.

Occurrence : Thrissur and Malappuram Districts.

Distribution : Peninsular India , Sri Lanka, Thailand , Indo-China .

 

 

 
 

 

Orchid Kerala India - Conceived, Crafted and Cared for by Jithin & Sinu.